Beginning September 25, 1981, Honda produced a variant of the Honda Accord badged as the Honda Vigor for Japan only. The first generation Vigor was a higher grade 4-door sedan and 3-door hatchback, with the 1.8 L engine as the only engine available, using Honda's CVCC-II system. The Vigor was a sportier, faster, "vigorous" Accord with a higher level of equipment over the more sedate Accord. Due to the higher level of luxury oriented equipment, the Vigor help "set the stage" for the market to accept a luxury equipped car from Honda, which appeared in 1985 with the Honda Legend. The Vigor competed with the Toyota Chaser and the Nissan Laurel in Japan. The rear lighting implementation consisted of the license plate installed in the bumper, with a black trim piece between the rear tail lights and the word "Vigor" inscribed. The Accord installed the rear license plate between the rear tail lights.
Progressive depletion of midbrain dopamine neurons (PDD) is associated with deficits in the initiation, speed, and fluidity of voluntary movement. Models of basal ganglia function focus on initiation deficits; however, it is unclear how they account for deficits in the speed or amplitude of movement (vigor). Using an effort-based operant conditioning task for head-fixed mice, we discovered distinct functional classes of neurons in the dorsal striatum that represent movement vigor. Mice with PDD exhibited a progressive reduction in vigor, along with a selective impairment of its neural representation in striatum. Restoration of dopaminergic tone with a synthetic precursor ameliorated deficits in movement vigor and its neural representation, while suppression of striatal activity during movement was sufficient to reduce vigor. Thus, dopaminergic input to the dorsal striatum is indispensable for the emergence of striatal activity that mediates adaptive changes in movement vigor. These results suggest refined intervention strategies for Parkinson's disease.
It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit vajah "force, strength," vajayati "drives on;" Latin vigil "watchful, awake," vigere "be lively, thrive," velox "fast, lively," vegere "to enliven," vigor "liveliness, activity;" Old English wacan "to become awake," German wachen "to be awake," Gothic wakan "to watch."
The input categories include meconium staining, appearance of the tongue, time to initiation of selective calf movements such as sitting, standing attempts, suckling, head shaking, tongue withdrawal after a pinch, and eye blinking. Mucous membrane color, heart and respiration rates are additional clinical signs that are assessed and assigned scores ranging from 0 to 3. The higher the score, the more vigorous the calf:
Vigor testing does not only measure the percentage of viable seed in a sample, it also reflects the ability of those seeds to produce normal seedlings under less than optimum or adverse growing conditions similar to those which may occur in the field. Seeds may be classified as viable in a germination test which provides optimum temperature, moisture and light conditions to the growing seedlings; however, they may not be capable of continuing growth and completing their life cycle under a wide range of field conditions. Generally, seeds start to lose vigor before they lose their ability to germinate; therefore vigor testing is an important practice in seed production programs.
Testing for vigor becomes more important for carryover seeds, especially if seeds were stored under unknown conditions or under unfavorable storage conditions. Seed vigor testing is also used as indicator of the storage potential of a seed lot and in ranking various seed lots with different qualities.
It has been established that the conditions of seed development, maturation, storage and aging influence seed vigor. Seeds developed under moisture stress, nutrient deficiency, extreme temperatures, etc. often result in light, shriveled seed or collectively called poor-vigor seed. Preharvest environment of high humidity and warm temperatures can also cause loss in seed viability and vigor. Seed mechanical damage, whether induced by harvesting or conditioning equipment, as well as improper storage conditions are among the factors that adversely affect seed vigor. In addition, genetic factors such as hard-seededness, resistance to diseases, and seed chemical composition influence the expression of seed vigor.
Cold test, accelerated aging test, electric conductivity test, seedling vigor classification, and seedling growth rate are among the tests that are used to measure seed vigor. In addition, the tetrazolium (TZ test) can be used as a vigor test by classifying the pattern of stained seeds into high, medium and low quality. The AOSA Seed Vigor Testing Handbook is a good source of information on seed vigor testing. Below is a brief description for some of the most common seed vigor tests that are used for various crops including corn, soybean, field beans, peas, grasses, vegetable seeds, and other crops.
The cold test simulates early spring field conditions by germinating the seeds in wet soils (70% water holding capacity) and incubating them at 5-10C/41-51F for a specified period. At the end of the cold period, the test is transferred to a favorable temperature for germination (e.g., 25C/77F in case of sweet corn). The percentage of normal seedlings is considered as an indication of seed vigor. Vigorous seeds germinate better under cold environments.
The principle of this test is to stress seeds with high temperatures of (40-45C/130-139F) and near 100% relative humidity (RH) for varying lengths of time, depending on the kind of seeds, after which a germination test is made. High vigor seeds are expected to tolerate high temperatures and humidity and retain their capability to produce normal seedlings in the germination test.
This test measures the integrity of cell membranes, which is correlated with seed vigor. It is well established that this test is useful for garden beans and peas. It has been also reported that the conductivity test results are significantly correlated with field emergence for corn, and soybean. As seeds lose vigor, nutrients exude from their membranes, and so low quality seeds leak electrolytes such as amino acids, organic acids while high quality seeds contains their nutrients within well structured membranes. Therefore, seeds with higher conductivity measurement are indication of low quality seeds as vice versa.
Our own history, perhaps better than the history of any other great country, vividly demonstrates the truth of the belief that physical vigor and health are essential accompaniments to the qualities of intellect and spirit on which a nation is built. It was men who possessed vigor and strength as well as courage and vision who first settled these shores and, over more than three centuries, subdued a continent and wrested a civilization from the wilderness. It was physical hardihood that helped Americans in two great world wars to defeat strong and tenacious foes and make this country history's mightiest defender of freedom. And today, in our own time, in the jungles of Asia and on the borders of Europe, a new group of vigorous young Americans helps maintain the peace of the world and our security as a nation.
These figures indicate the vast dimensions of a national problem which should be of deep concern to all of us. It is paradoxical that the very economic progress, the technological advance and scientific breakthroughs which have, in part, been the result of our national vigor have also contributed to the draining of that vigor. Technology and automation have eliminated many of those physical exertions which were once a normal part of the working day. New forms of transportation have made it unnecessary to walk to school or to the office or the corner store. New forms of entertainment have consumed much of the time which was once used for sports and games.
No one can deny the enormous benefits which these developments have brought-the reduction of drudgery and tedious tasks, the opportunity for greater leisure, the increased access to intellectual stimulation and quality entertainment. But at the same time we must not allow these advances to become the instruments of the decline of our national vitality and health. We cannot permit the loss of that physical vigor which has helped to nourish our growth and which is essential if we are to carry forward the complex and demanding tasks which are vital to our strength and progress.
Writing on this subject a year and a half ago, I stressed the importance of physical fitness to our national strength, the subtle but undeniable relationship of physical vigor to our capacity to undertake the enormous efforts of mind and courage and will which are the price of maintaining the peace and insuring the continued flourishing of our civilization. And this importance still exists. But fitness is vital for a still more basic reason. It is vital because it is the basis of the health and vitality of the individual citizen. And these are qualities which are essential if each American is to be free to realize fully the potential value of his own capabilities and the pursuit of his individual goals. In the final analysis, it is this liberation of the individual to pursue his own ends, subject only to the loose restraints of a free society, which is the ultimate meaning of our civilization.
The federal Government will continue to focus national attention on this problem. But it is absolutely clear that the ultimate responsibility for the fitness of the American people rests on the cooperation and determination of school boards and town officials, on thousands of community leaders, and on millions of fathers and mothers. Only through your effort can we hope to continue to move steadily toward a stronger and more vigorous America. 041b061a72